There are several
models of how PBL works in the classroom. All of them agree that in a
- students work through a series of problems designed to:
- be authentic (i.e. address real-world concerns)
- target defined areas of the curriculum
- be "ill-structured"
- they must be defined and analyzed through inquiry from a minimum
of presenting information
the real world, so that students find
themselves actually engaged in the problem and not just observers
- the role of the instructor changes from a "sage on the stage"
to a "guide on the side";
- students work collaboratively in small groups toward the problem's
Barrows proposes the
following model of the PBL process in How to Design a Problem-based
Curriculum for the Preclinical Years, 1985.
read and address problem, without background preparation.
to encode and organize information in useful ways.
*Allows students to find what they know and what they donšt know.
Misconceptions can be corrected in discussion of the problem.
*Mimics the real life context they will face as doctors.
and analyze problem using prior knowledge and resources available.
questions: ie. Do you need more information? Are you sure of the
facts or will a review be helpful? Do you think more information
on this area would be helpful?
hypotheses are grounded in science.
of cognitive skills for problem-solving process
of self-monitoring skills to identify the learning needs
of habitual student-initiated questioning
Students decide what they need to know and where they might best find
the information. They decide which resources to use (people, published
problem with new information and knowledge acquired during self-study.
learning resources used.
appropriate hypotheses and critiques prior performance.
organization of information to problem-solve.
should think about how what they learned has added to their understanding
of inclass activity follows on the next page.